Apart from hatching, numerous other approaches are used to generate pen-and-ink style illustrations. Der-Loi Way et al. [#!EVL-2001-52!#] give a way to generate Chinese landscape and portrait paintings semi-automatically.
Strassmann [#!strassmann86hairy!#] has developed a method for drawing lines as Sumi-e style brush strokes by physically simulating the behavior of a wet brush on paper. A different approach for drawing painterly lines by deforming predefined brush-stroke images was presented in [#!Hsu94Skeletal!#].
Although technically not pen-and-ink, but often used for the same illustrative purposes, charcoal drawings have gained a respected reputation in art. Majumder et al. [#!majumder2001charcoal!#] generate such charcoal renderings by texture-mapping the mesh with grainy noise textures (see Figure ). The contrast difference is exaggerated in order to emulate lighting effects and texture.